Investigating Pre-School Children's Perspectives of Robots through Their Robot Drawings
This study investigated preschool children’s opinions on educational robots using their robot drawings. The study group consisted of 64 five- and six-years old children in an independent kindergarden affiliated to the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) in Ankara province, Turkey and participated in the Preschool Robotics Coding Workshop within the scope of the project titled “TUBITAK 4007 Science in the Footsteps of Cezeri” in the 2018-2019 academic year. For the purpose of this study phenomenology model as a qualitative research approach was adopted and data was collected through visual materials and semi-structured interviews to determine children’s opinions on robots. The data collection process was carried out in an eight-weeks period starting in March 2019 as one week for the acquaintance phase, six weeks for practice, and the last week for a two-day workshop with educational robots. In line with the findings of this research, the mechanical features of the robots were examined, it was determined that there was an increase in the battery drawings in children’s last drawings compared to their first drawings. It was also determined that the children responded to “Who builds the robots?” interview question as factories, scientists, machines, and repairers in the first interview while more than 90% of the children responded as scientists and engineers in the second interview.
Bers, Marina U.; Ponte, Iris; Juelich, Katherine; Viera, Alison; & Schenker, Jonathan. (2002). Teachers as designers: Integrating robotics into early childhood education. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 123-147)
Bers, M. U. (2008). Blocks, robots and computers: Learning about technology in early childhood. New York: Teacher’s College Press.
Bers, M. U., & Horn, M. S. (2010). Tangible programming in early childhood: Revisiting developmental assumptions through new technologies. In I. R. Berson & M. J. Berson (Eds.)
Bornholt, L. J. ve Ingram, A. (2001). Personal and social identity in children’s self concepts about drawing. Educational Psychology, 21(2) 151-166.
Brewer, J. ve Hunter, A. (1989) Multimethod Research: A Synthesis ofStyles, Newbury Park: Sage.
Buldu, M. (2006). Young children’s perceptions of scientists: A preliminary study. Educational Research, 48(1), 121-132.
Burkitt, E., Barrett, M. ve Davis, A. (2009). Effects of different emotion terms on the size and colour of children's drawings. International Journal of Art Therapy, 14, 74-84.
Büyükkarabacak, O. (2008). Çocuk Resimlerinde İmgelerin Yeri. Yüksek lisans tezi. Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
Chang, N. (2012). What are the roles that children’s drawings play in inquiry of science concepts? Early child development and care, 182(5), 621-637.
Cox, M. V. ve Moore, R. (1994). Children's depictions of different views of the human figure. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 14(4), 427-436.
Creswell, J. W. (2015). Nitel, Nicel ve Karma Yöntem Yaklaşımları Araştırma Deseni. (Çev. Ed. Selçuk Beşir Demir). Ankara: Eğiten Kitap.
Çakmak, A. ve Darıca, N. (2012). 7-11 Yaş Grubu Kurumda ve Ailesi Yanında Büyüyen Kız ve Erkek Çocuklarının Anne Figürü Çizimlerinin Duygusal Gelişim Açısından İncelenmesi. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(41), 147-160.
Denzin, N. K. (1978). The research act: A theoretical introduction to research methods. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.
Ehrlen, K. (2009). Drawings as representations of children’s conceptions. International Journal of Science Education, 31(01), 41-57
Ersoy, A. & Türkkan, B. (2009). İlköğretim Öğrencilerinin Resimlerinde İnternet Algısı. İlköğretim Online, 8(1), 57-73, [Online]: http://ilkogretim-online.org.tr adresinden 04 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde indirilmiştir.
Güler, T , Akman, B . (2006). 6 yaş çocuklarının bilim ve bilim insanı hakkındaki görüşleri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 31 (31) , 55-66 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/hunefd/issue/7807/102395
Gürtuna, S. (2004). Çocuk ve Sanat Eğitimi. İstanbul: Morpa Kültür Yayınları.
Hammersly, M. (1992) "Deconstructing the Quali- tative-Quantitative Divide", in J. Brannen (Eds.). Mixing Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Research (s. 39-55), Avebury: Aldershot.
Hammersley, M. ve Atkinson, P. (1995) Ethnography: Principles in Practice (2nd edition), London: Routledge.
Ioannidou, A., Bennett, V., Repenning, A., Koh, K. H. and Basawapatna, A. (2011, April). Computational thinking patterns. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting (AERA).
İskenderoğlu, L. (2006). Çocuk Resimlerinde Görme Biçimleri (S.H.Ç.E.K. Malatya Atatürk Çocuk Yuvası Örneği). Yüksek lisans tezi. Fırat Üniversitesi, Elazığ.
Johnson, J. H. (2003). Children, robotics, and education. Artificial Life and Robotics, 7(1), 16-21.
Kasalak, İ. (2017). Robotik Kodlama Etkinliklerinin Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Kodlamaya İlişkin Özyeterlik Algılarına Etkisi ve Etkinliklere İlişkin Öğrenci Yaşantıları (Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü)
Klein, C. A. (1982). Children’s concept of the Earth and the Sun: A cross cultural study. Science Education, 65(1), 95-107.
Lowenfeld, V. -Britain, L.W., Creative and Mental Growıh, 5 .baskı, l1 Macrnillan Campany, New York, 1971
Malchiodi, C. A. (2005). Expressive theories. Guilford Publications
Mertkan, Ş. (2015). Karma Araştırma Tasarımı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Metin, Ş. ve Aral, N. (2012). Dört-Yedi Yaş Çocuklarının Resim Gelişim Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi. Ankara Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(2), 55-69.
Modular Robotics. (2011). Modular robotics: Cubelets. Retrieved April 14, 2020 from https://www.modrobotics.com/
Odacı, M. M., ve Uzun , E. (2017). Okul Öncesinde Kodlama Eğitimi ve Kullanılabilecek Araçlar Hakkında Bilişim Teknolojileri Öğretmenlerinin Görüşleri: Bir Durum Çalışması. 11. Uluslararası Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Sempozyumu (s. 702-709). Malatya: İnönü Üniversitesi.
Özdemir, M. (2010). Nitel veri analizi: Sosyal bilimlerde yöntembilim sorunsalı üzerine bir çalışma. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(1), 323-343.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2009). Curriculum and instruction: A 21st century skills implementation guide. The Partnership for 21st Century Skill. [Çevrim-içi: http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/p21- stateimp_curriculuminstruction.pdf, Erişim tarihi: 11.12.2018.]
Patton, Q. M. (1987) How to Use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation, London: Sage Publication.
Pehlivan, H. (2008). Mythological drawings from Turkish elementary school children. Elementary Education Online, 7(1), 150-156. [Online]: http://ilkö!retim-online.org.tr
Picker,S.H.&Berry,J.S.(2000). Investigating Pupil’ Images of Mathematicians. Educational Mathematics,43(1), 65-94.
Prensky, M. (2001, 9). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On The Horizon, 9(5), 1-6.
Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernández, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., . . . Kafai, Y. (2009). Scratch: Programming for all. Communications of the ACM, 52(11).
Resnick, M. (2003). Playful learning and creative societies. Education Update, 8(6).
Retrieved April 12, 2020 from https://web.media.mit.edu/~mres/papers/ education-update.pdf
Resnick, M. (2012). Point of view revining papert’s dream. Educational Technology, 52(4),42-46
Rijey, J. & Van Rooy, W. (2007). Perceptions about health in primary school children. Teaching Science, 53(4), 32-35.
Sadık, F., Çakan, H., ve Artut, K. (2011). Çocuk Resimlerine Yansıyan Çevre Sorunlarının Sosyo-Ekonomik Farklılıklara Göre Analizi. İlköğretim Online, 3(10), s. 1066-1080.
Sayıl, M. (2004). Çocuk çizimlerinin klinik amaçlı kullanımı üzerine bir değerlendirme. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları,7(14), 1-13.
Woods, S., Joerg, S., J. Schulz (2004). The Design Space of Robots: Investigating Children’s Views. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication Kurashiki, Okayama Japan Ek 20-22, 2004
Yavuzer, H. (2003). Resimleriyle Çocuk; Resimleriyle Çocuğu Tanıma. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi
Yıldırım, A.,Şimşek, H., 2016, “Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri,” Seçkin Yayıncılık, 9.Baskı, Ankara
Copyright (c) 2021 Ela Sümeyye Secim, Mine Canan Durmuşoğlu, Mustafa Çiftçioğlu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).