The Development and Validation of the Programming Anxiety Scale



computer programming, programming anxiety, scale development, scale validation


The main goal of the current study is to develop a reliable instrument to measure programming anxiety in university students. A pool of 33 items based on extensive literature review and experts' opinions were created by researchers. The draft scale comprised three factors applied to 392 university students from two different universities in Turkey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the draft scale. According to analysis results, the Programing Anxiety Scale comprised of two factors and 14 items. In addition, factor loadings for the 14-item scale range from .633 to .918. Internal factor reliability for the whole scale and the subscales was estimated as Cronbach's alpha values of .95, .90, and .94, respectively. In the light of these results, the Programming Anxiety Scale is an appropriate and dependable tool.


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Author Biographies

Osman Gazi YILDIRIM, National Defence University-TURKEY


Nesrin OZDENER, Marmara University-TURKEY



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How to Cite

YILDIRIM, O. G. ., & OZDENER, N. (2022). The Development and Validation of the Programming Anxiety Scale . International Journal of Computer Science Education in Schools, 5(3), 17–34.