What Do Turkish Pre-Service Teachers Think About Artificial Intelligence?

  • Halil Ibrahim Haseski Manisa Celal Bayar University
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Pre-service Teachers, Views on artificial intelligence


The aim of the present study was to determine the views of pre-service teachers on artificial intelligence. In the present qualitative study, conducted with the phenomenology design, that data were collected from 94 pre-service teachers attending different departments at Manisa Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Education during the 2018-2019 academic year fall semester in Turkey. Data were collected with semi-structured interview form and written interview form, developed by the author. Collected data were analyzed by using content analysis method and classified under themes. Analyses demonstrated that pre-service teachers assigned different meanings to artificial intelligence, felt basically negative emotions for artificial intelligence, and did not want to live in a world ruled by artificial intelligence. Furthermore, it was found that pre-service teachers considered that artificial intelligence could have both several benefits and risks, and it might have both positive and negative effects on education. Based on the study findings, various recommendations were presented for future studies and implementations on the topic.


Download data is not yet available.


Akerkar, R. (2014). Introduction to artificial intelligence (2nd ed.). Delhi: PHI Learning.

Aleven, V., Roll, I., McLaren, B. M., & Koedinger, K. R. (2016). Help helps, but only so much: Research on help seeking with intelligent tutoring systems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(1), 205-223.

Allen, G., & Chan, T. (2017). Artificial intelligence and national security. MA: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.

Bahrammirzaee, A. (2010). A comparative survey of artificial intelligence applications in finance: Artificial neural networks, expert system and hybrid intelligent systems. Neural Computing and Applications, 19(8), 1165-1195.

Baker, M. J. (2000). The roles of models in artificial intelligence and education research: A prospective view. Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education, 11, 122-143.

Barber, N. (2015). Can artificial intelligence make us stupid? Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-human-beast/201507/can-artificial-intelligence-make-us-stupid

Barnes, T., Boyer, K., Sharon, I., Hsiao, H., Le, N. T., & Sosnovsky, S. (2017). Preface for the special issue on AI-supported education in computer science. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 27(1), 1-4.

Brundage, M., Avin, S., Clark, J., Toner, H., Eckersley, P., Garfinkel, B., . . . Amodei, D. (2018). The malicious use of artificial intelligence: forecasting, prevention, and mitigation. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1802/1802.07228.pdf

Campa, R. (2014). Technological growth and unemployment: A global scenario analysis. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 24(1), 86-103.

Chand, M., Ramachandran, N., Stoyanov, D., & Lovat, L. (2018). Robotics, artificial intelligence and distributed ledgers in surgery: Data is key! Techniques in Coloproctology, 22(9), 645-648.

Chen, N. S., Cheng, I. L., & Chew, S. W. (2016). Evolution is not enough: Revolutionizing current learning environments to smart learning environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), 561-581.

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). CA: SAGE Publications.

Crevier, D. (1993). AI: Tumultous history of the search for artificial intelligence. NY: Basic Books.

Davenport, T. H. (2018). The AI advantage: How to put the artificial intelligence revolution to work. MA: MIT Press.

Davies, C. R. (2011). An evolutionary step in intellectual property rights – Artificial intelligence and intellectual property. Computer Law & Security Review, 27, 601-619.

Dirican, C. (2015). The impacts of robotics, artificial intelligence on business and economics. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 564-573.

Ertel, W. (2017). Introduction to artificial intelligence (2nd ed.). Switzerland: Springer.

Ford, M. (2013). Could artificial intelligence create an unemployment crisis? Communications of the ACM, 56(7), 1-3.

Future of Life Institute. (2016). Benefits & risks of artificial intelligence. Retrieved from https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/?cn-reloaded=1

Ginsenberg, M. (2012). Essentials of artificial intelligence. CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Greer, J., & Mark, M. (2016). Evaluation methods for intelligent tutoring systems revisited. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(1), 387-392.

Grivokostopoulou, F., Perikos, I., & Hatzilygeroudis, I. (2017). An educational system for learning search algorithms and automatically assessing student performance. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 27(1), 207-240.

Hamet, P., & Tremblay, J. (2017). Artificial intelligence in medicine. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental, 69, 36-40.

Hawking, S., Russell, S., Tegmark, M., & Wilczek, F. (2014, May 1). Stephen Hawking: 'Transcendence looks at the implications of artificial intelligence - but are we taking AI seriously enough?'. The Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/ news/science/stephen-hawking-transcendence-looks-at-the-implications-of-artificial-intelligence-but-are-we-taking-9313474.html

Jiang, F., Jiang, Y., Zhi, H., Dong, Y., Li, H., Ma, S., . . . Wang, Y. (2017). Artificial intelligence in healthcare: Past, present and future. Stroke and Vascular Neurology, 2(4), 230-243.

Kaplan, J. (2016). Artificial intelligence: What everyone needs to know. NY: Oxford University Press.

King, R. D., Whelan, K. E., Jones, F. M., Reiser, P. G. K., Bryant, C. H., Muggleton, S. H., . . . Oliver, S. G. (2004). Functional genomic hypothesis generation and experimentation by a robot scientist. Nature, 427, 247. doi:10.1038/nature02236

Kopec, D., Pileggi, C., Ungar, D., & Shetty, S. (2016). Artificial intelligence and problem solving. MA: Mercury Learning & Information.

Korinek, A., & Stiglitz, J. E. (2017). Artificial intelligence and its implications for income distribution and unemployment. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/ w24174.pdf

Krittanawong, C., Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Aydar, M., & Kitai, T. (2017). Artificial intelligence in precision cardiovascular medicine. Journal of The American College of Cardiology, 69(21), 2657-2664.

Kulkarni, P., & Joshi, P. (2015). Artificial intelligence: Building intelligent systems. Delhi: PHI Learning.

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174.

Leitão, P., Ma?ík, V., & Vrba, P. (2013). Past, present, and future of industrial agent applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 9(4), 2360-2372.

Li, B., Hou, B., Yu, W., Lu, X., & Yang, C. (2017). Applications of artificial intelligence in intelligent manufacturing: A review. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 18(1), 86-96.

Makridakis, S. (2017). The forthcoming Artificial Intelligence (AI) revolution: Its impact on society and firms. Futures, 90, 46-60.

Mannino, A., Althaus, D., Erhardt, J., Gloor, L., Hutter, A., & Metzinger, T. (2015). Artificial intelligence: Opportunities and risks. Retrieved from https://ea-foundation.org/files/ai-opportunities-and-risks.pdf

McArthur, D., Lewis, M., & Bishary, M. (2005). The roles of artificial intelligence in education: Current progress and future prospects. Journal of Educational Technology, 1(4), 42-80.

McClure, P. K. (2018). “You’re fired,” says the robot: The rise of automation in the workplace, technophobes, and fears of unemployment. Social Science Computer Review, 36(2), 139-156.

McKee, G. T. (2002, May 11-15). The development of Internet-based laboratory environments for teaching robotics and artificial intelligence. Paper presented at the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/ stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1013639

Minsky, M. (2006). The emotion machine: Commonsense thinking, artificial intelligence and the future of the human mind. NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks.

Mishra, R. B. (2011). Artificial intelligence. New Delhi: PHI Learning.

Mohammed, P., & Mohan, P. (2015). Dynamic cultural contextualisation of educational content in intelligent learning environments using ICON. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 25(2), 249-270.

Müller, V. C. (2016). Editorial: Risks of artificial intelligence. In V. C. Müller (Ed.), Risks of artificial intelligence (pp. 1-8). FL: CRC Press.

Nasir, S. (2018). Is AI making humans lazy? Here’s what UAE residents say Retrieved from https://www.khaleejtimes.com/nation/dubai/Is-AI-making-humans-lazy-Here-what-UAE-residents-say

Nilsson, N. J. (2010). The quest for artificial intelligence: A history of ideas and achievements. NY: Cambridge University Press.

O’Leary, M. B. (2018). Revolutionizing everyday products with artificial intelligence. Retrieved from http://news.mit.edu/2018/revolutionizing-everyday-products-with-artificial-intelligence-mit-meche-0601

Osoba, O. A., & Welser, W. (2017). An intelligence in our image: The risks of bias and errors in artificial intelligence. CA: Rand Corporation.

Page, J., Bain, M., & Mukhlish, F. (2018, August 24-27). The risks of low level narrow artificial intelligence. Paper presented at the 2018 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Safety for Robotics, Shenyang, China. Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/ stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8535903

Pannu, A. (2015). Artificial intelligence and its application in different areas. Artificial Intelligence, 4(10), 79-84.

Parnas, D. L. (2017). The real risks of artificial intelligence. Communications of the ACM, 60(10), 27-31.

Pfeifer, R., Iida, F., & Bongard, J. (2006). New robotics: Design principles for intelligent systems. The MIT Press Journals, 11(1-2), 99-120.

Poola, I. (2017). How artificial intelligence in impacting real life everyday. International Journal of Advance Research and Development, 2(10), 96-100.

Popenici, S. A., & Kerr, S. (2017). Exploring the impact of artificial intelligence on teaching and learning in higher education. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), 1-13.

Porayska-Pomsta, K. (2016). AI as a methodology for supporting educational praxis and teacher metacognition. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), 679-700.

Qi, L. (2008, August 2-3). Research on intelligent transportation system technologies and applications. Paper presented at the 2008 Workshop on Power Electronics and Intelligent Transportation System, Guangzhou, China Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp ?tp=&arnumber=4634911

Qin, J., Liu, Y., & Grosvenor, R. (2016). A categorical framework of manufacturing for industry 4.0 and beyond. Procedia Cirp, 52, 173-178.

Rahimi, Z., Litman, D., Correnti, R., Wang, E., & Matsumura, L. C. (2017). Assessing students’ use of evidence and organization in response-to-text writing: Using natural language processing for rubric-based automated scoring. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 27(4), 694-728.

Ramesh, A. N., Kambhampati, C., Monson, J. R., & Drew, P. J. (2004). Artificial intelligence in medicine. Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England, 86(5), 334-338.

Roll, I., & Wylie, R. (2016). Evolution and revolution in artificial intelligence in education. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), 582-599.

Russell, S., Hauert, S., Altman, R., & Veloso, M. (2015). Ethics of artificial intelligence. Nature, 521(7553), 415-416.

Russell, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2010). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach (3rd ed.). NJ: Pearson.

Santos, O. C. (2016). Training the body: The potential of AIED to support personalized motor skills learning. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), 730-755.

Schafer, J. B. (2004, April 16-17). Hands-on artificial intelligence education using LEGO Mindstorms: Lessons learned. Paper presented at the Midwest Instruction and Computing Symposium, University of Minnesota, Morris. Retrieved from http://faculty.chas.uni.edu/~schafer/ publications/MICS_2004.pdf

Scherer, M. U. (2015). Regulating artificial intelligence systems: Risks, challenges, competencies, and strategies. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 29(2), 354-398.

Schofield, J. W., Evans-Rhodes, D., & Huber, B. R. (1990). Artificial intelligence in the classroom: The impact of a computer-based tutor on teachers and students. Social Science Computer Review, 8(1), 24-41.

Self, J. (2016). The birth of IJAIED. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(1), 4-12.

Shukla, S. S., & Vijay, J. (2013). Applicability of artificial intelligence in different fields of life. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 1(1), 28-35.

Skouby, K. E., & Lynggaard, P. (2014, November 27-29). Smart home and smart city solutions enabled by 5G, IoT, AAI and CoT services. Paper presented at the 2014 International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics, Mysore, India. Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/ stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=7019822

Sotala, K. (2010, October 4-6). From mostly harmless to civilization-threatening: Pathways to dangerous artificial intelligences. Paper presented at the ECAP10: VIII european conference on computing and philosophy, Munich. Retrieved from https://intelligence.org/files/ MostlyHarmless.pdf

Sotala, K. (2012). Advantages of artificial intelligences, uploads, and digital minds. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 4(1), 275-291.

?en, Z. (2018). Significance of artificial intelligence in science and technology. Journal of Intelligent Systems: Theory and Applications, 1(1), 1-4.

Turchin, A., & Denkenberger, D. (2018). Classification of global catastrophic risks connected with artificial intelligence. AI & SOCIETY, 1-17. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-018-0845-5

Turing, A. M. (1950). Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind, 49, 433-460.

Verma, A., & Kumar, S. (2018, January 11-12). Cognitive robotics in artificial intelligence. Paper presented at the 2018 8th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science & Engineering, India. Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/ stamp.jsp?tp=& arnumber=8442725

Walker, E., & Ogan, A. (2016). We’re in this together: Intentional design of social relationships with AIED systems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), 713-729.

Warwick, K. (2012). Artificial intelligence: The basics. OX: Routledge.

Yoon, D. M., & Kim, K. J. (2015). Challenges and opportunities in game artificial intelligence education using Angry Birds. IEEE Access, 3, 793-804.

Zabjek, A. (2018). How artificial intelligence is reshaping our lives. Retrieved from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-artificial-intelligence-reshaping.html

Ziemke, T. (2001). The construction of ‘reality’ in the robot: Constructivist perspectives on situated artificial intelligence and adaptive robotics. Foundations of Science, 6(1-3), 163-233.

How to Cite
Haseski, H. I. (2019). What Do Turkish Pre-Service Teachers Think About Artificial Intelligence?. International Journal of Computer Science Education in Schools, 3(2), 3 - 23. https://doi.org/10.21585/ijcses.v3i2.55